Other Water Treatment Options

Water quality issues can vary, and, depending on the substances found in your water supply, there will be a specific water treatment approach required. There are typically different water treatment options for suspended solids, bacteria, and dissolved solids or minerals.

Treatment Options

Suspended Solids

This is material that exists in a suspended (insoluble) form in water, which will typically settle at the bottom of a glass or bottle as a visible sediment. This type of contamination is very common in surface waters, such as rivers, where water movement generates high turbidity. Filtration is the best way to remove this type of contamination. Different pore sizes in the filter allow for removal of particles to specific “micron” (millionth of a meter) ratings.

There exists a variety of filter cartridges or media filters, the selection depending largely on the amount of suspended solids, and the type of water use. For example, a standard filter for drinking water is typically in the 5 to 1 micron range. The smallest particle size visible to the human eye is around 30 microns, meaning that suspended solids vary greatly from those that can be seen easily and those that cannot.


Among the most popular technologies for the treatment of microbiological contamination is inactivation by ultraviolet light (UV). UV systems emit ultraviolet light at a wavelength of 254 nanometers, which can inactivate microorganisms in water. It is important to ensure the appropriate UV dose by consulting a water treatment professional for system sizing and installation. UV technology is not new but has been refined to the point where it is an excellent option for water treatment.

Other methods of inactivation such as chlorine and ozone are also used for drinking water. Chlorine is widely used for its residual effect so that water remains treated throughout distribution systems. Health conscious trends have led to the desired removal of chlorine before the consumption of water not least because of its unpleasant taste and the potential health effects of DBPs. Ozone is a very powerful oxidant, having specific applications in the bottling of beverages a last step after UV inactivation to sanitize containers and add shelf life to purified water.

Comparison of Inactivation Options

Type of Treatment



Ultraviolet (UV)

  • No change to taste/odour of water*

  • Low energy usage

  • Limited maintenance

  • Requires pre-filtration for best results
  • Does not provide residual


  • Can also oxidize
  • Can provide a residual
  • Adds an unpleasant taste and odour to the water
  • Requires holding time/tank
  • Cryptosporidium and Giardia are highly resistant

Ozone/Hydrogen Peroxide

  • Can also oxidize
  • Provides limited residual

*In rare circumstances, low levels of sulphur in source water may become detectible due to the UV system.

Dissolved Solids

As the term suggests, this contaminant refers to material dissolved in the water. The solids are chemically dissolved as part of the water, and their concentrations are measured overall as total dissolved solids (TDS). The maximum concentration allowed in drinking water is usually around 1000 ppm. TDS solids is a general measure of all solids dissolved while more detailed analysis will report the levels of individual dissolved species (for example, calcium, magnesium, bicarbonates, and nitrates). Dissolved solids are generally in the form of “ions”, cations carrying a positive charge and anions carrying a negative charge.

Some of the most important dissolved contaminants are arsenic, uranium, fluorides and nitrates. Special attention is given to these contaminants due to important implications for public health. Permissible limits for various dissolved contaminants vary according to the health effect. For example, acceptable levels of calcium are generally 50 thousand times higher than for arsenic. Technologies employed to remove dissolved solids include demineralization by ion exchange, distillation, and reverse osmosis.

Demineralization by Ion Exchange

This is a process by which up to 99% of dissolved minerals are removed by passing water through a bed of cationic exchange resin and then passing through an anionic resin bed. This process is able to generate a high degree of demineralized water. The first resin column removes positively charged ions while the second column removes negative ions. This technology is widely used at an industrial level.  A similar process, using cationic resin only, is used in water softeners.


This process delivers water of high purity by evaporating water, leaving the mineral content behind, followed by condensation of the resulting steam. Its application is limited by the high energy requirement.

Reverse Osmosis

RO is a very successful process to remove dissolved solids, for residential, commercial and industrial applications. This process uses a membrane which rejects a high percentage of dissolved solids in the water. It is important to select a RO system that is water efficient. That is, it yields more product water (permeate) and wastes as little water as possible (rejection).