Contaminated drinking water

1,4-Dioxane Treatment

TrojanUV advanced oxidation systems break down a wide array of contaminants in water, including 1,4-dioxane

About 1,4-dioxane

  • When released into the air, 1,4-dioxane degrades relatively quickly, but it is slow to degrade in water and soil, so it can remain in groundwater if not treated
  • The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) has designated 1,4-dioxane as “likely to be carcinogenic to humans”
  • 1,4-dioxane contamination has been found in the United States, especially in highly industrialized regions

The USEPA monitored 1,4-dioxane levels at 800 water treatment plants across the United States between 2013 and 2015. Results showed that over 20% of treatment plants tested had at least one sample measure above the USEPA established reporting limit concentration of 0.07 ppb.

Heat map showing states that had 1,4-Dioxane levels that were above USEPA reporting limits

Removing 1,4-dioxane with UV Advanced Oxidation

1,4-Dioxane’s low vapor pressure and high solubility render air stripping, carbon adsorption and reverse osmosis ineffective for its removal. However, the UV advanced oxidation process (UV AOP), which uses UV light along with an oxidant, is very effective at breaking down 1,4-dioxane into its molecular components. We have dozens of installations treating 1,4-dioxane, which, together, are treating over 380 million gallons of water every day.

Read the 1,4-dioxane Fact Sheet

1,4-Dioxane Fact Sheet

UV in Action

Treatment of Groundwater Contaminated With 1,4-dioxane in Tucson, Arizona

The Tucson International Airport Area Superfund Site is located in Pima County, Arizona. As early as 1942, metals, chemicals and other wastes were disposed of in the region, which led to aquifer contamination. The Tucson Airport Remediation Project (TARP) commissioned a groundwater treatment system, however, continued monitoring detected 1,4-dioxane which could not be easily removed with their air-stripping system. As a result, our TrojanUVPhox® system was installed in the water treatment facility immediately adjacent to the TARP.

Case study about the TrojanUVPhox installation at the Advanced Oxidation Process Water Treatment Facility in Tucson, Arizona

Treatment of NDMA & 1,4-dioxane in San Gabriel Valley, California

Since it was first settled in 1841, California’s San Gabriel Valley, east of Los Angeles, has hosted a wide variety of industries which contaminated much of its groundwater. When the contamination was discovered, five new groundwater treatment facilities were built, all selecting UV AOP for the treatment of NDMA and 1,4-dioxane. For these contaminants, UV AOP was the only practical and proven solution.

Case study about the TrojanUVPhox installations at all five groundwater treatment facilities in the Baldwin Park Operable Unit Superfund Site located in the San Gabriel Basin, California

Successful Piloting of UV Advanced Oxidation on Long Island for 1,4-dioxane Treatment

The New York State Department of Health has recognized UV AOP as a treatment solution for 1,4-dioxane.

For water providers located in Nassau County on Long Island, it was necessary to pilot UV AOP technology at the various wells requiring treatment in order to confirm treatment efficacy and obtain state approval.

Case study about UV advanced oxidation piloting for 1,4-dioxane treatment on Long Island

Systems for 1,4-dioxane Treatment

TrojanUVFlex 200 Series Chamber


The TrojanUVFlex®AOP is our latest UV advanced oxidation solution for the treatment of contaminants. It’s cross-flow lamp orientation enhances treatment efficiency and provides built-in redundancy. A compact and modular chamber design allows for easy expandability and installation in even the smallest of spaces.

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TrojanUVPhox Chambers


Vertically stackable and modular, the TrojanUVPhox allows for multiple chambers in series and the ability to expand without increasing footprint. It’s the industry-standard for UV advanced oxidation, currently installed at the world-renowned Ground Water Replenishment System in Orange County, California.

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